Fundamentals of computer components of a computer system system software application software ram rom eapcet material

 Fundamentals of computer components of a computer system system software application software ram rom eapcet material


COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

 

Fundamentals of computer

It is based on a binary circuit EBCDIC logic

Extended binary code for decimal interxhange code

Supporting ASCII  logic standard

Computer and remaining electronic device difference --- memory

Which of the following is the major difference between computer and remaining electronic device ---cloud repository

Functional units of the system

 

                 Input ---à processing unit…..> output

Component which is used to insert the data to the system – input peripheral

Ex: keyboard, mouse,joystic,omr,ocr,micr,scanner,voice records,graphic table,light pen,voice recorder,touch pad,

Which of the following is the primary input device?

a)     Mouse b)keyboard c) both d) none

keyboard

Which of the following is used to identify thehologram signalling and barcode readers ?

a)     Scanner b) keyboard c)ocr d)micr

Micr

Which device is used to detect  the analog waves of human body ?

Graphic tablet

Component which is used to display  the processed data?

Output peripherals

Moniter , printer, speakers,projector screen

Which of the following is a stdout device monitor

Which peripheral component is used to convert hardcopy to softcopy ?

Scanner

Raw data to png --- scanner

Zigzag to mp4 format … videocam input

Pdf file to raw data ---- printer

Soft copy to hardcopy – printer

Which device is used to convert pdf to zip ? processor

Processor is one component to convert raw data to digital data

Raw data to system signal (system calls)

                               Data bus

To recognize all the peripherals  which are connected to the machine

To detect network signals

To detect cmos/bios internal tools

To identify pci/isa slot data

In processor component contains 3 internal parts

Memory unit

Control unit

Arithmetic logic unit

Memory unit :

To identify internal and external memory resources

And it plans for job scheduling

Sequence scheduling

Control unit :

Monitors all the peripherals which are connected to machine and it controls the instructions by the support of system software it controls the signals by system bus and data bus

Arithmetic logic unit :

It performs the instructions which are monitored by cu

Broths algorithm based on performs operations

(8086 scsi controller)

Small computer system interface

Components of a computer system :

Peripheral/ hardware of the system

Cabinet

Mother board

All i/o devices

Network interface code

Cmos

 

Mother board :

Internal memory

Pci slots

Isa slots

Jumper settings

Cmos battery

Keyboard and monitor connector

Power conector

Chip sets

Socket 7 (processor solt)

Chip sets :

North bridge

South bridge

Types of softwares :

Software :

It is a program to coordinate raw data and system resources

Buit of statements (system calls) (instructions)

Post primary functions to load the os from secondary memory to ram

1)     System software

2)     Application software

System software :

It is mainly interacts with hardware resources

Its also interacts with existing system architectures

It also interacts with some raw data

Ex : loader, linkers,assembles,device drivers,encoder,decoder,system calls

Dma system calls

Application software :

It interacts with user data or human readable data

Note :

All the installed software’s except os & device drivers

Ex : c , java,programming language,office tools,chrome browser

( IE , safari ----- inbuilt browsers)

All the IDES (integrated dev environment) :

How the application software works :

By the support of system software and os

Schema map :

It is a temporary base table format

Used to identify the available os resources

Path means :

It is a secobdary storage data

Storage location

Both

None

Ans : both

System calls are related to :

Software and system software

Bsic functions of the application software

Easy to implement user data

Who will operate application software

Both user and os and system software

Which of the interface layer between user and operating system

Application software

Utility softwares : 

All the utility softwares all called as inbuilt instructions or inbuilt methods

DLLS : (dynamic link library fields)

. jar files , .dll files :

API ----- utility software

To resolve the interrupts

Main memory and its types

Except secondary memory all main memory

Main memory some times  we will call as 

Primary memory

System memory

Inbuilt memory (except ram)

Basic functionality of main memory :

It recognizes all the system calls to store data temporarily

It is volatile and nonvolatile 

It detects system buses and data buses

Is is used to establish a connection between one resource to another resource

ROM :

Read only memory

It is a non volatile memory

It always supports to the processor

It always interacts with control unit and memory unit of the processor

Is supports to the temporary instruction buffer (system call)

To the all activated devices

It is indirectly BIOS chip set (Basic input and out put system) to the all activated devices

PROM :

Programmable ROM

Is is not a part of ROM

There is three logical parts of memory

Auto exe.bat file stored in prom

It is a programme used to write the instructions or data on a temporary  memory and permanent memory

Write the instructions to the disk

PROM supports RAID(data bucket)

Mirror disks also non non volatile

EPROM:

Erasable programmable read only   memory

To read the data from cylinders

To erase the data on the cylinders

The fix the bad clusters (unformatted space on the cylinders)

EEPROM :

Electrically erasable programmable read only memory

Non volatile when EEPROM  is the active state it is automatically activated to recover the problem

RAM :

Random access memory

Volatile – when power gone data lose

To store data on temporary basis this memory is used to maintain page table temporary basis

PARTS OF RAM :

SRAM    DRAM    SDRAM

SRAM :

Static ram

All temporary applications stored in this memory

It holds the current cursor location file

Pcb ( programmable control block) isrelated to SRAM

DRAM :

Dynamic ram

It creates execution link for an application from permanent installed location to te temporary available location

SDRAM :

Synchronous dynamic ram

When the sram and dram are in the interrupt stage sd ram memory is automatically activate


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