Automatic storage classes arrays in programming language number system

 Automatic storage classes arrays in programming language number system eapcet engineering stream material

AUTOMATIC STORAGE CLASSES:    

Module scope/code blocked scope

Storage on system memory

Auto keyword

Validity upto invoking the block+++

Default storage data unpredictable

Syntax:

Auto <data type><identifier> =<value>;

Auto int x;

All the elements are individual

There is no dependent elements

Elements are identified by the indexes

To find the elements in a matrix format by useingthe index point of row and column

Array is called as related elements but same datatype , homogeneous data elements

DYNAMIC MEMORY ALLOCATION

MALLOC ()         REALLOC()         CALLOC()       FREE()

MALLOC()

It is used to allocate single block of memory

Syntax :

<ptr location>=<type declaration?malloc<pointer or buffer size>

Dynamic memory allocation methods available  stdlib.h

Ptr=<int*>malloc(size of(int));

CALLOC

To allocate multiple blocks of memory

Syntax :

<ptr location>= <type conversion> calloc(n,buffer size);

Ptr=<int *> calloc(3,size of(int)))

POINTERS:

Pointers are used to identify the address of another variable

This variable is stored in memory

Pointers also one type of variable / identifier

Pointers are identify the asterisk operator

Address is also stored on some other address in the memory

Pointer terms

*---------à pointer

&…………..> address

*(*)…………>actual value (pointer of pointer)

*(&)…………..> actual value (address of pointer)

How to declare pointers

Pointers are declared by the primitive data types

Primitive data types followed by the initial name

Pointer is a prefix of the variable

<data type > *<literal name>

Int * p;

{

Int x,*p;

X=5

P=&x;

Pr(“%d”,*p);

}

ARRAYS IN PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE :

Collection of related data items or collection of same data items stored in a common memory (shared memory)

Homogeneous data items

Arrays are used to implement sequential memory allocation

Key terms :

Default index starts with zero

Array indexes must be integer

Group of indexes called as indices

L bound of array zero

Bootimg index zero

U bound (n-1) some times it is called asterminated index

Last index (n-1)

Components of an array

Data type array name size

Datatype ……………… user defined

                                      Predefined

Syntax :

Declaration of an array

<data type > <array name[ size];

Int x [5]

How to initialize the array :

We can assign

Based on assignment operator

Association based on right to left

<array name> [index] =<value>

Ex : x(0) = 10;

Array name index =0 value 10

Types of array initialization:

First form notation

Second form notation

R to l

By using index

Ex :  int x[5]  first form

X[0]=10

Second form :

Right to left  *without proper space ‘

Without index

Int x[5] ={10,20,30,40};

Number are elements which are mentioned in the curly brace in size of array

How to access the array elements :

By using loops

{

Int x[] =(10,20,30,40,50);

Int I;

For(i=0 i<x.length; i++}

Pf(“%d”,x[i]);

While loop

It is a entry controlled loop

Note: cursor checks for the condition before execteing the statements

Syntax :

Int ;

While cond

{

-----

------

}

While is called as entry controlled

Which of the following loop is called as entry controlled …………while

Do-while

Exit controlled loop

Int

Do

{

------

-----

++/--;

While(cond);

Int i=0;

Do

{

Printf(‘%d”,i);

I++

}while(i<5);

Structure

Declare a data structure format in multiple data types declaration is based on keyword struct followed by the structure name

Struct <structure name >

We can access numbers from the structure by using the keyword or user defined tags

Struct <sname><tag name>

In c++ java it is called as object

Structure test t :

To create relationship between structure members and tag by using period operator (.)

<tag name >.<structure member>

Ex: t.htno;

We can assign the values to the structure members by using assignment operator(=)

Syntax :

<tag name >.<member name >=<value>

Ex:

t.acc number =”12345”

how to declare structure

struct <structure name>

{

----------

-------------

<data members of the structure>

}

Struct employee

{

Int emp id

Char ename [15]

};

 

How to declare structure with in a structure :

Nested structures

To declare1 structure tag in another is called as nested structures

Ex:

Struct tesgt 1{

Int account number

}

Struct test 2 {

Struct test 1 T1;

Int mobile number

};

Struct test 2 T2;

N nested structure declaration is also possible in nested structures

How to declare arrays to the structures

What is the main use of  arrays with structures

To store multiple records in structure --- arrays

How to create tables in c --- structures

Struct customer {

Int cid

Char cname [20]

Int number ;

};

Struct with arrayare used to create relationship structures

Struct <sname>

{

--------

 

----------

 

}

Struct <s.name>< tag name> [size]

It can support n arrays

Struct customer {

Int cid;

Char cname [20]

};

Struct customer c[5];

Note :

How to access multiple records from array with structures

By using loops

C[0].cifd=123

UNION

Union are used to find the random memory location

Unions are declared by using the “union” followed by union name

Wec can access the members from the union by using tag

To create a relationship between union tag and the union members by using period operator (.)

Syn:

Union<union name>

{

…………

…………

};

Union test {

Int number ;

};

To access the number from the union

Union test t{

t.number =12345

UNION ARRAYS

It is not possible to implement nested union

Reason : randomization allocation

Nested unions are not possible in

UNION TEST {

INT number

};

Uniton tesy t[5];

To access union array loops

If the structure ofunion contains n indexes loops are must be in the nesyed format

Registers :

Module/code block scope

Register

Data storage on processor register

Invoking  default value unpredictable

Syntax :

Register <data type><name>=<value>

Register int r;

Static :

Module or functional or code block scope

Static keyword default size zero

System memory storage allocation

Syntax:

Static <data type> <identifier name > =<value>

Static int s;

External :

Global scope,unpredictable,extern,system memory

Extern<data type><identifier>=<value>

Operator over loading:

To solve the complex problems

Data authentication data secrecy complex problems

<data type> operator<symbol>

{

……

…..

}

Void operator +()

{

…….

……..

Count 10+20;

Which symbols are not allowed operator over loading

(,),{,},[,],,,:,;,-

All arithmetic relational bitwise conditional operators allowed

Note :

To invoke the operations in operator overloading by using the prefix of the object

Class test

{

Algorithms in programming language :

Step by step description allowed in algorithms step by step description to solve real world task to identify the solving descriptions of the real world data

It is a procedure used to solve the problems in a step by step manner

COMMANDS IN THE ALGORITHM

COMMAND                                                               PURPOSE

START -------------- To begin the algorithm

Begin …………………to activate the algorithm

Process…………….. to execute the algorithm

Compute…………..to execute the statement

Cond………………….to find the conditions

Lt………………….lessthan

Ltq………………lessthan or equalsto

Gt……………….greater than

Gtq……………greater than or equals to

Eq/eql………………….comparison

Comp……………comparison

Stop……………to terminate the algorithm

End……………to terminate the algorithm

 

NUMBER SYSTEM

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM

OCTAL NUMBER SYSTEM

HEXA DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM

Binary number system :

It is used to identify the electronic storage data in binary number system base value 2 range 0,1

Decimal number system :

Find human readable numbers

Base value 10 range 0------9

Octal number system :

To display the data on digital circuit boards

Symbol base value range

Hexa decimal number system :

Mainly used for identifying the memory address

Address based on alpha numbers

16 base valuerange 0---------9 A------------F

Bcd conversion :

0+0 =0   0+1 =1  1+0 =1 1+1=1

0 is result 1 is carryforward

Data transfer :

Void display (5,6)

Void display(int,int)

Types of functions

Predefined functions

A function which are defined in programme or platform header files are preprocessors or packages or apis are called as pre defined functions

These are called as system defined functions inbuilt functions existing functions

Header file registered functions

Api--- application programming interface

<sgtdio.h> <iostream.h> java.io.*

User defined :

These functions are declared defined by the user according to his programme requirements

No—no

No—with

With—no

With---with

Components of the method(parts of the method)

Data type ,method type, parameters ,body

Which of the following is a mandatory component for the user defined function data type return type

Which part of a method is option parameters

Function ----- to create code blocks

Default arguments  or default parameters

To ignore the user inputs

Void display(int x,int y=20)

What are the types of functions in pure object oriented programming

Bascic functions

Mutator functions

Accessor functions

Mutator functions

It is also called as setters it is also used to assign the values to literals

It is used to invoke instant variables

It is used to implement the keyword

Operator is set assignment operator it is used to return the values

A function contains more than one function a class contatins more than 1 class

Function names are same and return type is also same but number of parameters are different ------over loading

Importance : buffer reusability mechanism

  Class test

{

Void display (int x )

{

}

Void display (int x int y)

}

Void display (int x int y int z);

}

Method over loading is  a polymorphism

Polymorphism is a memory reusability

Void operator +()

{

……………..

……………

}

Void main ()

{

Test T

+T;

}

Algorithms in programming language :

Step by step description allowed in algorithms step by step description to solve real world task to identify the solving descriptions of the real world data

It is a procedure used to solve the problems in a step by step manner

COMMANDS IN THE ALGORITHM

COMMAND                                                               PURPOSE

START -------------- To begin the algorithm

Begin …………………to activate the algorithm

Process…………….. to execute the algorithm

Compute…………..to execute the statement

Cond………………….to find the conditions

Lt………………….lessthan

Ltq………………lessthan or equalsto

Gt……………….greater than

Gtq……………greater than or equals to

Eq/eql………………….comparison

Comp……………comparison

Stop……………to terminate the algorithm

End……………to terminate the algorithm

 

NUMBER SYSTEM

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM

OCTAL NUMBER SYSTEM

HEXA DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM

Binary number system :

It is used to identify the electronic storage data in binary number system base value 2 range 0,1

Decimal number system :

Find human readable numbers

Base value 10 range 0------9

Octal number system :

To display the data on digital circuit boards

Symbol base value range

Hexa decimal number system :

Mainly used for identifying the memory address

Address based on alpha numbers

16 base valuerange 0---------9 A------------F

Bcd conversion :

0+0 =0   0+1 =1  1+0 =1 1+1=1

0 is result 1 is carryforward

Data transfer :

Void display (5,6)

Void display(int,int)

Types of functions

Predefined functions

A function which are defined in programme or platform header files are preprocessors or packages or apis are called as pre defined functions

These are called as system defined functions inbuilt functions existing functions

Header file registered functions

Api--- application programming interface

<sgtdio.h> <iostream.h> java.io.*

User defined :

These functions are declared defined by the user according to his programme requirements

No—no

No—with

With—no

With---with

Components of the method(parts of the method)

Data type ,method type, parameters ,body

Which of the following is a mandatory component for the user defined function data type return type

Which part of a method is option parameters

Function ----- to create code blocks

Default arguments  or default parameters

To ignore the user inputs

Void display(int x,int y=20)

What are the types of functions in pure object oriented programming

Bascic functions

Mutator functions

Accessor functions

Mutator functions

It is also called as setters it is also used to assign the values to literals

It is used to invoke instant variables

It is used to implement the keyword

Operator is set assignment operator it is used to return the values

A function contains more than one function a class contatins more than 1 class

Function names are same and return type is also same but number of parameters are different ------over loading

Importance : buffer reusability mechanism

  Class test

{

Void display (int x )

{

}

Void display (int x int y)

}

Void display (int x int y int z);

}

Method over loading is  a polymorphism

Polymorphism is a memory reusability


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